http://revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/issue/feed Revista Electrónica Educare 2018-09-27T23:18:52+00:00 MAU. Liana Penabad-Camacho educare@una.ac.cr Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Educare Electronic Journal</strong> is edited and published by Center for Research and Teaching in Education (<a title="CIDE UNA" href="http://www.cide.una.ac.cr/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CIDE</a>, by its acronym in Spanish) from Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica (<a title="Universidad Nacional" href="http://www.una.ac.cr/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">National University</a>, Costa Rica). It is an <strong>international, academic, electronic</strong> Journal. The journal is published <strong>quarterly</strong>: the first number covers January to April and is published on January the 1st; the second one, covers May to August, and is published on May the 1st. The third number is published&nbsp; on September the 1st and covers September to December.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Educare’s</em> <strong>aim</strong> is to disseminate academic production in the area of Education, both nationally and internationally, allowing authors to communicate their findings and readers, the possibility to discover the extensive work related to the discipline and its impact and relationship with other fields of knowledge. In search of the construction of interdisciplinary pedagogical thought, the Journal seeks academic reflection; the discussion and analysis of the published knowledge; the incorporation of new perspectives; the reference to innovation and the presentation of successful methodological applications. Aware of the wide range of expressions in this discipline, from theoretical conceptualizations to practical exercises, <em>Educare</em> offers a space for exchange, dissemination and promotion of Education.</p> http://revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/8645 Students’ Perceptions Regarding the Educational and Organizational Quality of a Nursing Program at a Chilean Private University 2018-09-27T23:18:52+00:00 Fernando Vera-Millalén fernandoveracl@gmail.com <p class="p1">This paper aims to describe the students’ perception of the educational and organizational quality of the Nursing undergraduate program, at a Chilean private university. With a cross-sectional, mixed-method data design, it was decided that a self-administered 58-item questionnaire granted by the Chilean National Commission for Accreditation (CNA-Chile) should be used, with a response rate of 44.6% (n =104), of which 83 were women and 21 men (79.8% and 20.2%, respectively). Complementarily, focal group interviews were conducted. Estimations were performed with an exploratory, statistical and content analysis. Thus, results showed that students’ satisfaction with the nursing program is acceptable, but not entirely satisfactory (<span class="s1">x̄</span>=2.68). This implies a gap to overcome, provided that the CNA-Chile quality criteria are to be met. Consequently, a full range of curricular and organizational adjustments should be made in the unit being analyzed., a full range of curricular and organizational adjustments should be made in the unit being analyzed.</p> 2018-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/8538 Skills and Strategies Required for Visual Teaching Literacy in Preschool Education 2018-09-27T23:18:52+00:00 Andrea Soto-Grant asotogrant@gmail.com <p class="p1">This article refers to the results of data collection and the theoretical research conducted as part of a research project to obtain a master’s degree; the research aimed to develop methodologies and materials for stimulation of visual literacy with children in preschool. The following sections theorize the context in which the theme of image reading is developed. The conceptualization of the terms relating to visual literacy to establish parameters for the collection and analysis of data is also set. A quantitative approach with a descriptive methodology was used to collect the data. The data for this research were collected through interviews with teachers selected from a preschool educational level; it was a convenience sampling to which a self-administered questionnaire with several types of dichotomous, multiple-choice, open and closed questions was applied. Among the results obtained, a lack of knowledge on the concept and importance of visual literacy was revealed, as well as how to implement this literacy in their preschool classrooms. The lack of specific teaching strategies for the stimulation of this type of literacy with children is also highlighted.</p> 2018-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/8667 Ethics and Personalized Training: An Experience with Cuban University Professors Training Administrative Personnel 2018-09-27T23:18:52+00:00 Adilen Carpio-Camacho adilen@uniss.edu.cu María del Carmen Echevarría-Gómez mariac@uniss.edu.cu María de la Caridad Páez-Martín mariacaridad@uniss.edu.cu Osvaldo Romero-Romero osvaldo@uniss.edu.cu <p class="p1">The postulates of Víctor García Hoz, on teaching staff’s behaviors characterized by preferences and attitudes, have been little analyzed in postgraduate teaching programs. The present article, based on a research project, shows an experience for strengthening the ethical formation of the Cuban university teaching staff that trains administrative personnel from the postulates of the referenced author, as a contribution to personalized education. The methodology developed from an interpretative perspective is applied to professors with the highest scientific and academic categories from the Faculties of Economics, Engineering and Humanities at the University of Sancti Spiritus. The experience is designed in three phases. The first one is descriptive, based on the selection and reading of documents and discussion groups, to know the essential elements of the professional ethics in the context of the university. The second one is empirical, where intervention is implemented to strengthen the ethical education of the teaching staff. The third phase is evaluative, based on the evaluation of the feasibility and validity of the intervention from questionnaires applied to experts, discussion groups, and participant observation. The results obtained confirmed the existence of an epistemological gap in the analysis of personalized teaching in the postgraduate program. The essential lies in the critical and reflexive comparison that the teaching staff, which trains administrative personnel, can make on how its ethical precepts are transformed, how it has an impact on its classroom practices, and how it has influence on responsible and integral actions of the people being trained, as well as on the shared responsibility of both the university and teachers.</p> 2018-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/8811 Sources of Knowledge in Preferences and Identification of Fauna in Children of Rural and Urban Contexts 2018-09-27T23:18:51+00:00 Nidia Yaneth Torres-Merchán nidia.torres@uptc.edu.co Luis Alfonso Salcedo-Plazas luis.salcedo@uptc.edu.co Ángela Becerra-Niño becerras324@gmail.com Wilson Valderrama wilsonvalde@gmail.com <p class="p1">This article analyzes the influence of mass media on primary school students when studying animal species. Images on taxonomic groups of wildlife transmit perceptions. Therefore, these transmitted perceptions are examined in 249 children from rural and urban elementary school aged 7 to 13 years old. This analysis used two PowerPoint presentations with images of endemic and non-endemic species. It is found that in urban and rural contexts, television and Internet are the means for further identification of the species presented. Concerning the perceptions, students have a preference for mammals and birds species. These data allow inferring the influence media can have on the knowledge of biodiversity and the promotion of care towards nature.</p> 2018-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/8692 Knowledge About Child Rearing Practices: Exchange Between Nursery and Family 2018-09-27T23:18:52+00:00 Astrid Gabriela Bravo-Soto abravo@ucsc.cl <p class="p1">This article presents a case study conducted in Chile. The purpose of this study was to know how the exchange of knowledge on rearing practices occurs between the nursery and families, and how this knowledge is used to enrich the curriculum proposal for the level. Data were collected through document analysis, observation of babies during the workday, and in-depth interviews with the mothers and the staff of the center. Content analysis and triangulation of sources were carried out. The findings show differences in the practices related to the priorities established for each of the contexts, the dynamics that occur in the daily routine, and parameters for judging those differences. Some exchanges are observed concerning feeding practices and the siesta time. It is required to advance in the construction of curricular proposals to rescue families’ knowledge, as well as to broaden the perspective regarding what is selected to be transmitted to the babies.</p> 2018-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/8672 Análisis multivariado a los factores relacionados con el aprendizaje móvil en la educación superior en Colombia 2018-09-27T23:18:52+00:00 Erika Juliana Estrada-Villa erikajulianaestrada@hotmail.com Óscar Rafael Boude-Figueredo oscar.boude@unisabana.edu.co <p class="p1">This article shows the elements related to mobile learning in higher education; a multivariate analysis (the main focus of this article) on these elements was performed. For this, mixed research was conducted that took part of the results obtained on a previous research project. In these results, fourteen elements were identified; now, this article reduces them to three through a multifactorial analysis. Besides, to collect the data, a Likert-type instrument was applied to 30 university researchers. To process the data a multivariate analysis was implemented, resulting in the following elements: the training element and the student’s characteristics; the lack of management that correlates with the lack of m-learning guidelines and lack of infrastructure. In conclusion, the elements extracted should be taken into account when drawing guidelines to include mobile learning in higher education, as well as teacher training plans, in response to what students require.</p> 2018-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/8706 Analysis of the Scientific Production in Politics and Educational Management Published in ScieLO 2012-2015 2018-09-27T23:18:51+00:00 José González-Campos jgonzalez@upla.cl Juan Aspeé-Chacón juan.elias.aspee@gmail.com Ida Sessarego-Espeleta idasessarego@gmail.com Héctor González-Suárez h.gonzalezsuarez@gmail.com Rosa Gómez-Osorio rosyvalpo7@gmail.com <p class="p1">Scientometrics, as a measurement of scientific production, connects researches together and drives education research to new rigorous standards. Scientometrics can be used as a measurement as well as a guide to address current and neglected issues. In this regard, the primary purpose of this paper is to analyze and elaborate education policy and management issues utilizing the scientific research in the SCIELO publications between 2012-2015 of 15 countries.<span class="Apple-converted-space">  </span>Education policy and management issues are organized and summarized in a scientific frequency index. This index allows identifying countries with the lowest risk and highest stability such as; Bolivia, Brazil, and Uruguay. Equally, the index identifies countries with the highest risk and lowest stability such as; Peru and South Africa. This warrants the need to establish education policy and management standards employing scientific measurement. Equally, it opens the need for scientometrics research and establishing criteria for the decision making process.<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span></p> 2018-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9071 Deconstructing the Notion of Inclusion: An Analysis of Studies, Policies and Practices in Education 2018-09-27T23:18:51+00:00 Muriel Armijo-Cabrera murielarmijo.c@gmail.com <p class="p1">This paper demonstrates that the notion of inclusion, which is used both in public policies and educational research, encompasses two distinct and incompatible concepts in the production of knowledge: <em>inclusive education vs. social inclusion</em> at school. This research deconstructs the notion of inclusion in education, based on the analysis of theoretical texts and international studies in education (2000-2015). Therefore, in this paper we identify three main findings that allow us to define the two concepts: (1) they are processes of a different nature, based on specific definitions and languages; (2) they have different conceptions of democracy, which influence the focus on school or on society; and (3) they are based on different ontological principles, equity or equality, determining contradictory practices of implementation. In conclusion, we recommend considering which concept supports future research in education to propose studies, policies, and practices consistent with the ontological frame adopted.</p> 2018-07-24T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9035 Flipped Learning Model to Achieve Learning Goals in the Research Methodology Course in Undergraduate Students 2018-09-27T23:18:51+00:00 Juan Pedro Matzumura-Kasano jmatzumura@yahoo.com Hugo Gutiérrez-Crespo hgutierrezc@gmail.com Luisa Angélica Zamudio-Eslava luchyzam86@gmail.com Juan Carlos Zavala-Gonzales jczavalag5875@gmail.com <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Introduction: Teachers are currently trying to change the traditional model to one based on learning needs of the students. The flipped (inverted) learning model seeks to promote learning through a work jointly led by teachers and students.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>Objective: To analyze the implementation of the flipped learning model in the achievement of goals in the Research Methodology course. Methodology: a prospective, longitudinal, quasi-experimental research design. Place: Health Sciences Faculty, at a private University. Participants: 81 undergraduate students. Interventions: A convenience non-probability sample was selected; then, the flipped learning model was implemented. The first analysis was performed in the third week of classes, and the second one in the fifteenth week, using a valid instrument with a total reliability index of 0.79. The Edoome educational platform was also used; it has characteristics of an open source learning management system.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>Results: 93.8% stated that the teacher and the students develop the class, 29.6% previously study the contents, and 39.5% make a summary of the class, meaning that the collaborative work predominates. 74.0% stated that the flipped learning facilitated their learning and obtained better grades in the final exam.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>Conclusion: The flipped classroom model proved to be effective to achieve learning goals in the Research Methodology course, and its implementation is becoming a need for the university education system.</span></p> 2018-07-25T16:45:07+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/8612 Management in Single-Teacher Schools and Dirección 1: A Challenge to Reach Educational Equity in Rural Contexts in Costa Rica 2018-09-27T23:18:51+00:00 Luis Alfredo Miranda-Calderón alfremira@gmail.com Satya Rosabal-Vitoria satyarosabal@gmail.com <p class="p1">Currently, management is one of the main challenges single-teacher schools and principals located in Costa Rican rural contexts have to face in order to achieve equity and educational relevance. The objective of this qualitative-descriptive study is to analyze and strengthen management accomplished by teachers working as single-teachers in schools denominated “Dirección 1” (a single-teacher school category of the Costa Rica Education System), located in rural communities in the Sarapiquí area of Costa Rica. The purpose is to contribute to the improvement of the education in these institutions through the implementation of a training proposal that includes the two main components of their management tasks: the pedagogical aspect and the administrative one. Based on the diagnosis and information provided by 28 managers from the Sarapiquí area (16 from single-teacher schools and 12 from “Dirección 1”) through a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview, the reality of these institutions was examined in depth in order to determine the conditioning situations of administrative management as a requirement of their educational work, as well as the implications for the pedagogical work they carry out. Derived from the reflections and findings of the study, the training and continuing education proposal was generated around topics that each teacher of these institutions must consider fundamental to provide relevance to their educational management. Finally, a set of strategies is proposed to guide and facilitate the execution of administrative procedures developed by each teacher as part of their educational work in the communities where they work.</p> 2018-07-26T00:04:09+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/8570 Emotional Intelligence in Primary Education and Its Relationship with Academic Performance 2018-09-27T23:18:51+00:00 Alba del Carmen Valenzuela-Santoyo albavzlas@hotmail.com Samuel Alejandro Portillo-Peñuelas samuelport90@gmail.com <p class="p1">In the present study, emotional intelligence in Primary Education is approached from the perspective of personal and social-affective abilities that help an individual to know himself or herself and to relate better with others. The study aims to analyze the relationship between emotional intelligence and academic performance of primary school students of a public institution. The analysis is based on a quantitative paradigm of transversal design, not experimental. The emotional intelligence factor is established from the dimensions of perception, regulation, and comprehension, which are related to academic performance. The TMMS-24 instrument was used for the emotional intelligence variable, and the final grade of the 2013-2014 school year was used for the students’ academic performance. To find positive and negative correlations Pearson’s r was implemented in the analysis of results. Fifty-eight fifth- and sixth-grade students participated in the study. The school is located in the school zone 017 of the Commissariat of Pueblo Yaqui, Cajeme, Sonora. Among the findings stands out the significant relationship between emotional intelligence and academic performance in primary school students. It is concluded that proper management of emotions is essential for the good academic performance of students at school.</p> 2018-07-25T17:22:40+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9643 Education and Human Rights from the Juridical Viewpoint of Sexual Diversity: Boundaries, Resistance, and Challenges from the Argentinian Socio- Legal Experience 2018-09-27T23:18:51+00:00 Eduardo Arrubia earrubia@gmail.com <p class="p1">In the current globalized world, the individualism is emphasized, threatening human values to capitulate within market relationships. In this context, education emerges as a powerful tool to revalue the human being as a person and in the relationship with others. Therefore, this essay aims to explore LGBTI groups’ human rights and analyze how these rights of sexual diversity work as a necessary analytical approach to promote tolerance, as well as respect, through education. To do this, it will be studied how the international scenario is channeled into the local level through the <span class="s1">Ley 26150 de Educación Sexual Integral, 2006</span> (Argentinian law on Integral Sexual Education), and its compliance will be tested implementing surveys and semi-structured interviews. In this regard, specific analytical criteria have been used, such as the level of education of teachers, the existence of real situations of discrimination based on sexual motivations within school facilities, and the boundaries and resistances that come from other social environments. Therefore, we prove that, despite the new legal progressive advances, the daily enforcement of the sexual education law shows limits that derive from the cultural context, as well as from the lack of training of teachers.</p> 2018-07-25T17:50:29+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9628 Pedagogical Beliefs About the Specific Difficulties of Learning Mathematics from the Perspective of Special Education Teachers in a Public School in Chile 2018-09-27T23:18:51+00:00 Fabián Andrés Inostroza-Inostroza fabian.uah.doc@gmail.com <p class="p1">This research aims to describe the pedagogical beliefs of differential educators on the specific difficulties of learning mathematics. This study employed a qualitative design with an ethnographic approach, in which four special education teachers participated, and the in-depth interview and participant observation were used as data collection instruments. The qualitative content analysis was used as a technical analysis of the discursive corpus obtained. Among the most relevant findings are the specific difficulties of learning mathematics that correspond to an intrinsic condition to the student, and the origin of these difficulties that are associated with both a health problem and inadequate methodologies of teaching mathematics. Likewise, it is proposed that students who have these difficulties have a problem at the level of mathematical reasoning, which prevents them from progressing in the learning of this school subject.</p> 2018-07-25T21:38:23+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9366 The Use of Experimental Archaeology As a Didactic Resource in the Learning Process: An Educational Experience with Students of Tourist Administration in Lima, Perú 2018-09-27T23:18:51+00:00 Iván Ernesto Quijano-Araníbar ivan.quijano1@unmsm.edu.pe <p class="p1">In the Peruvian educational context there is a lack of specialized and experimental didactic resources for courses on Pre-Columbian History of Peru. For this reason, experimental archaeology was adapted and applied as a didactic resource (Arquered), a methodology used in the archaeologist’s work. In consequence, the research has as a general objective that is to demonstrate that the application of the Arquered improves the students’ learning process. The research approach is a quantitative and explanatory type. Likewise, the quasi-experimental design, with post-test only and control group, has been chosen. A non-probability sampling was implemented and consisted of 55 students, of which 30 were selected from the morning shift (control group), and 25 from the night shift (experimental group). The non-participant survey and observation was applied through two instruments: the Q1 questionnaire and the Q2 comparison list, respectively. In relation to the analysis, the IBM SPSS version 20.0 program was used to obtain the chi-square value (X2) of each item. The results showed that the use of the Arquered improves the learning process of the History of Pre-Columbian Peru, since it contributes to identify the students’ previous knowledge and increases their degree of participation and level in the learning achievements, either in the case of conceptual and procedural contents, or in a favorable attitude towards the archaeological heritage.</p> 2018-07-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9048 Didactical Suggestions to Implement a Leveling Course in Mathematics: Systematization of an Experience at the National University of Costa Rica 2018-09-27T23:18:51+00:00 Miguel Picado-Alfaro miguepicado@hotmail.com <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This paper presents the results of a study on the systematization of an experience based on the implementation of a leveling course in mathematics at the School of Mathematics of the National University of Costa Rica. This course is addressed to high school students, college students, and the general public; it approaches certain topics on real numbers and the fundamentals of algebra, which constitute the base of the mathematical formation in college education and whose understanding stands out as a cognitive limitation of college students. The objective of the study was to evaluate the design and development processes of the course and assessed its achievements in the participating population in order to obtain inputs for curricular noticing and decision making on its design and implementation in later years. Regarding the methodology, the study was framed in qualitative-descriptive research; the anecdotal records of the tutor-teacher were the instruments to collect information. Categories were defined in a process of systematization of experiences, and the units of analysis were defined from relevant aspects of the course to analyze the information. The systematization of this experience and its analysis have allowed the identification of cognitive and motivational specificities in the students, as well as methodological and evaluative particularities in the teachers. Also, from the results based on critical interpretation, some suggestions were proposed; these suggestions are addressed to the offer of the course and the curricular changes that can be made to improve its design and the student’s learning during the sessions.</span></p> 2018-07-25T23:16:49+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9176 Perceptions of Disability: Implications for Educational Attention of Students of the National University of Costa Rica 2018-09-27T23:18:51+00:00 Angélica Fontana-Hernández angelfontana@ice.co.cr Marie Claire Vargas-Dengo marie_d_claire@yahoo.com <p class="RESUMEN ParaOverride-6">This article was written within the research project “Perceptions and realities of addressing educational needs: a proposal for professional development and its implementation at the National University of Costa Rica.” The research approach was qualitative, and the main objective was to analyze perceptions and constructions of disability and their implications to address educational needs. Qualitative research techniques were applied, such as questionnaire, incomplete phrases, and imagery association. In the study, 427 academic staff participated. The results pointed out that the constructions about disability emerge from the perception of disability as an individual and person-centered condition within a traditional approach. The results showed the importance of implementing a pedagogical strategy with the academic staff of the institution; it is a strategy about the principles of inclusive education and the inclusion of persons with disabilities for specific purposes in the university academic practice and inclusive pedagogical practices.</p> 2018-07-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9991 Charter of Healthy Pedagogy: Reunions of Life, Dialogue, and Peace 2018-09-27T23:18:51+00:00 Ileana Castillo-Cedeño ileana.castillo.cedeno@una.cr Rocío Castillo-Cedeño rociocastillocedeno@gmail.com Luz Emilia Flores-Davis luz.flores.davis@una.cr Giselle Miranda-Cervantes giselle.miranda.cervantes@una.cr <p class="p1">The purpose of this document is to promote the Charter of Healthy Pedagogy, which constitutes a declaration in favor of life, dialogue and peace. From a methodological point of view, it is based on a research project conducted at the Centro de Investigación y Docencia en Educación (CIDE, Center for Teaching and Research in Education) of the Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica (UNA, National University of Costa Rica). Based on the project titled “Healthy Pedagogy” conducted by the División de Educación Básica (Department of Basic Education), CIDE, between 2013 and 2016, a robust theoretical framework has been constructed, which invites and confronts the reader to reconsider the pedagogical processes as vital ones. This Charter is a direct result of the entire research process, which extends the horizon of considerations and actions regarding the ethical commitments and challenges to discover new education landscapes towards a culture of care and a reunion with life. The Charter of Health Pedagogy transcends the scope of college education and constitutes a document that inspires healthy pedagogic mediation processes throughout all education levels in an attempt to experience vital spaces in favor of integral growth. From the principles this Charter is based on to promote education from complexity, the student as a whole, the ethics of care in pedagogic mediation, the construction of learning communities, the religation, and the existence of a cosmic conscience are all recognized.</p> 2018-07-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/9790 Teaching As an “Act of Love” by Applying Non-traditional Teaching-Learning Methods in Virtual Environments 2018-09-27T23:18:51+00:00 Sonia Maldonado-Torres smaldonado@hostos.cuny.edu Victoria Araujo araujovictoria176@gmail.com Oneirys Rondon orondon04@gmail.com <p class="p1">In the following essay, the concept of “teaching as an act of love” in virtual environments is explained. This essay describes some non-traditional teaching-learning methods and their incorporation in virtual courses. The objective of this essay is to help teachers create more effective virtual environments using non-traditional teaching-learning methods that, in turn, promote teaching as an “act of love.” Teaching as an “act of love” implies that teachers incorporate these non-traditional teaching-learning methods in virtual environments, focusing their efforts on knowing their students and their needs. Critical and constructivist theories of education will be discussed to understand how to adapt these methods to virtual environments. Among the non-traditional teaching-learning methods mentioned in the essay are the following: learning by the association of experiences, learning by discovery, constructivist learning, and cooperative learning among others.</p> 2018-07-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/8715 Reflections on Bullying in Costa Rica 2018-09-27T23:18:51+00:00 Leonel Arias-Sandoval leonel.arias.sandoval@una.cr <p class="p1">This essay aims to reflect on the social phenomenon of bullying in Costa Rica, a holistic approach that considers the various causes related to these acts of violence among peers. Bullying is a form of school violence; hence, it is difficult to give a single explanation of its causes as many factors can coexist and can make this phenomenon worse. Therefore, it follows that this is a complex and multi-causal social phenomenon and is part of a school culture that spreads in schools every day. It also has different manifestations: affective, cognitive, and sociocultural ones. Bullying is a multidimensional and social construction that feeds on the culture of fear, manifested in physical or psychological abuse, ownership or control, and an asymmetrical expression of power during social interactions that take place within or outside educational spaces. In conclusion, we all have a degree of responsibility on bullying, on knowing how to live and coexist free of violence, on the practice of healthy living at home, on education based on respect, and finally on the obligation to report all forms of abuse or bullying. The fundamental thing is to build respectful, supportive, and inclusive environments from a community approach.</p> 2018-07-26T01:43:43+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/EDUCARE/article/view/8752 Teaching Practice and Curriculum: A Construccionist Analysis Frame 2018-09-27T23:18:51+00:00 Abel Pérez-Ruiz abeprez28@gmail.com <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The purpose of this paper is to reflect, from the perspective of the social construction, the relationship between the teaching practice with the elementary education curriculum. It is established that the curricular systems do not act as uniform and abstract knowledge, but instead, they allow the formation of communicative interdependencies between agents who, based on their beliefs, values and historically constructed knowledge, interpret education and give a unique sense to it in certain contexts. The relevance lies in locating the curriculum as a dialogic mechanism with various communicative intentions in a scenario that seeks to standardize the guidelines of teaching acts. </span></p> 2018-07-26T02:13:39+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##