La restauración ecológica clásica y los retos de la actualidad: La migración asistida como estrategia de adaptación al cambio climático

Pilar A. Gómez-Ruiz, Roberto Lindig-Cisneros

Resumen


La restauración ecológica es un área muy activa de la ecología y de gran importancia para el manejo de ecosistemas. A pesar de ser una disciplina relativamente joven, los fundamentos conceptuales clásicos de la restauración parecen actualmente poco prácticos considerando los grandes retos generados por modificación y destrucción de ecosistemas a causa de actividades antrópicas (deforestación, cambio de uso de suelo, contaminación) y el cambio climático global. En el concepto clásico de restauración se pretende recuperar el ecosistema degradado a las mismas condiciones de un referente histórico. Sin embargo, hoy parece poco viable que los ecosistemas vuelvan a un estado previo a las perturbaciones, porque ya se han superado los umbrales de resiliencia. Adicionalmente, el cambio climático está modificando el ambiente a una velocidad sin precedentes. Por tal razón, la restauración ecológica necesita unir esfuerzos de diversos actores para la recuperación de ecosistemas que puedan ser sustentables y funcionales a futuro, donde las especies sean capaces de tolerar las condiciones ambientales que existirán a largo plazo. Como una estrategia de conservación de especies se ha propuesto la migración asistida, que es la translocación de especies a nuevas localidades fuera de su rango de distribución conocido. En el contexto actual de pérdida de diversidad y de ecosistemas, esta estrategia podría ser fundamental para la conformación de nuevas comunidades que luego pueden convertirse en nuevos ecosistemas, donde puedan persistir especies fundamentales para la dinámica de los ecosistemas y, al mismo tiempo, se recupere función, estructura y resiliencia.


Palabras clave


Especies invasoras; nuevos ecosistemas; paradigmas; recuperación de ecosistemas; resiliencia.

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15359/rca.51-2.2

Revista de Ciencias Ambientales.   ISSN Impreso: 1409-2158.   ISSN Electrónico: 2215-3896.

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