Entendiendo los factores que determinan la actividad física en el entorno escolar desde la perspectiva de los niños y niñas

  • Carlos Álvarez Bogantes Universidad Nacional, Escuela de Ciencias del Movimiento Humano y Calidad de Vida
Palabras clave: educación física, niños, recreo escolar, barreras ambientales, creencias

Resumen

Este estudio explora las percepciones de los niños sobre las barreras y los facilitadores para realizar actividad física durante los recreos, con el fin de ofrecer el insumo necesario para las autoridades e investigadores educativos para el desarrollo de intervenciones y de políticas que promuevan la actividad física en este grupo de edad en el entorno educativo. Métodos: Se utilizó un diseño cualitativo con grupos focales y entrevistas a profundidad. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de 6 grupos focales, con un total de 90 niños (50 niños y 40 niñas) de tercer grado y las tres maestras del grado. Resultados: Las barreras más frecuentemente identificadas por los niños y las niñas fueron: falta de apoyo social, matonismo, falta de espacio y barreras organizativas. El espacio para jugar y el tiempo fue una barrera para todos niños, generando conflicto y exclusión de participar en actividades físicas en las niñas y en parte de los niños. Conclusión: Los participantes percibenque los entornos escolares no favorecen la actividad física; sin embargo, siguiendo su naturaleza y necesidad de moverse, una gran mayoría encuentra las formas de llenar esa gran necesidad de jugar y divertirse. Conbase en los resultados de este estudio, se recomienda promover la actividad física a través del receso escolar, considerando las barreras en el entorno natural, social, físico y organizativo.

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.

Biografía del autor/a

Carlos Álvarez Bogantes, Universidad Nacional, Escuela de Ciencias del Movimiento Humano y Calidad de Vida
Doctor en Educación por la Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica; Profesor de la Escuela de Ciencias del Movimiento Humano yCalidad de Vida en la Carrera de Promoción de la Salud Física y Especialista en Fisiología y Ejercicio

Citas

Biddle, S.J.H. & Asare, M. (2011). Physical activity and mental adolescents: a review ofreviews. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 45 (11), 886–895. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/

bjsports-2011-090185

Boyle, D.E., Marshall, N.L. & Robeson, W. (2003). Gender at play-Fourth-grade girls and boys on the playground. American Behavioral Scientist, 46 (10), 1326–1345. http://dx.doi.

org/10.1177/0002764203046010004

Boreham, C. & Riddoch, C. (2001). The physical activity, fitness and health of children. Journal of Sports Science, 19 (12), 915–929. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/026404101317108426

Buchan, D., Ollis, S., Thomas, N. & Baker, J. (2012). Physical Activity Behaviour: An Overview of Current and Emergent Theoretical Practices. Journal of Obesity, 34, 1-11. http://dx.doi.

org/10.1155/2012/546459

Darbyshire, P., MacDougall, C. & Schiller W. (2005). Multiple methods in qualitative research with children: more insight or just more? Qualitive Research, 5 (4), 417–436. http://dx.doi.

org/10.1177/1468794105056921

Duncan, S.C., Duncan, T.E. & Strycker, L.A. (2000). Risk and protective factors influencing adolescent problem behavior: a multivariate latent growth curve analysis. Annals of

Behavioral Medicine, 22 (2), 103-109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02895772

Floriani, V. & Kennedy, C. (2008). Promotion of Physical Activity in Children. Curr. Opin. Pediatric, 20, 90-95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0b013e3282f3d9f9

Hallal, P.C., Andersen, L.B., Bull, F.C., Guthold, R., Haskell, W. & Ekelund, U. (2012) Global physical activity levels: surveillance progress, pitfalls, and prospects. The Lancet, 380, 247–257.

Haug, E., Torsheim, T., Sallis, J.F. & Samdal, O. (2010). The characteristics of the outdoor school environment associated with physical activity. Health Education Research, 25

(2), 248–256. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/her/cyn050

Horner, S.D. (2000). Using focus group methods with middle school children. Research in Nursing and Health, 23 (6), 510–517. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1098240X(200012)23:6<510::AIDNUR9>3.0.CO;2-L

Humbert, M .L., C had, K .E., S pink, K .S., M uhajarine, N ., Anderson, K .D., B runer, M .W.,Girolami, TM., Oknokon, P. & Gryba CR.(2006). Factors that influence physical activity

participation among high- and low-SES youth. Qualitative Health Research, 16 (4), 467-483. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1049732305286051

Ickes, M., Erwin, H., & Beighle, A. (2013). Systematic Review of Recess Interventions to increase Physical Activity. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 10, 910-926.

Ishii, K., Sato, M., Shibata, A. & Oka, K., (2013). Perceived School Physical Activity Environment and School Physical Activity among Japanese Elementary School Children.Japan Journal of Human Growth and Development Research 59, 1-11. Recuperado de:https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/hatsuhatsu/2013/59/2013_1/_pdf

Ishii, K., Shibata, A., Sato, M. y Koichiro Oka, K. (2014). Recess Physical Activity and Perceived School Environment among Elementary School Children. Journal of Environmental

Research and Public Health, 11, 7195-7206. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110707195

Janz, K.F., Burns, T.L. & Levy, S.M. (2005). Tracking of Activity and Sedentary Behaviors in Childhood: The Iowa Bone Development Study. American Journal of Preventive

Medicine, 29 (3), 171–178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2005.06.001

Jago, R., Baranowski, T., Zakeri, I. & Harris M. (2005). Observed environmental features and the physical activity of adolescent males. American Journal of Preventive Medicine,29(2), 98-104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2005.04.002

Mays, A., Graber, K. & Daum, D. (2012). Children’s recess physical activity: Movement patterns and preferences. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 31, 146-162. Recuperado

de http://journals.humankinetics.com/jtpe-back-issues/jtpe-volume-31-issue-2-april/childrenrsquos-recess-physical-activity-movement-patterns-and-preferences

Mota, J., Silva, P., Santos, M., Ribeiro, J., Oliveira, J. & Duarte, J. (2005). Physical activity and school between the sexes and the relationship between children playground physical

activity and habitual physical activity. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23 (3), 269-275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640410410001730124

Lake, A.A. & Townshend, T.G. (2006). Obesogenic environments: exploring the built and food environments. Perspectives in Public Health, 126 (6), 262–267. http://dx.doi.

org/10.1177/1466424006070487

Lake, A.A & Townshend, T.G. (2013). Exploring the built environment, physical activity and related behaviors of young people attending school, college and those not in employment.

Journal of Public Health, 35 (1), 57–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fds059

Lin, N. (2001). Social Capital: A Theory of Social Structure and Action. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511815447

Okuda-Benavides, M. & Gómez-Restrepo, C. (2005). Métodos en investigación cualitativa:triangulación. Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría, XXXIV, 118-124. Recuperado de http://

www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=80628403009

Ozdemir, A. & Yilmaz, O.(2008). Assessment of outdoor school environments and physicalactivity in Ankara’s primary schools. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 28 (3) . 287-

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2008.02.004

Parrish, A., Yeatman, H., Iveson,D & Russell, K. (2012). Using Interviews and Peer Pairs to Better Understand how School environments Affect Yong Children Playground Physical

Activity Levels: a Qualitative Study. Health Education Research, 27, 269-280.

Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks,CA: Sage.

Pawlowski, C., Shipperijn, J. & Troelsen, J. (2014). Barriers for Recess Physical Activity: A Gender Specific Focus group Exploration. BMC Public Health, 14, 639. Recuperado de:

http://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2458-14-639

Pitney, W & Parker, J. (2009). Qualitative Research in Physical Activity and the Health Professions.Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Ramstetter, C.L., Murray, R. & Garner, A.S. (2010). The Crucial Role of Recess in Schools. Journal of School Health, 80 (11), 517–526. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2010.00537.x

Ridgers, N.D., Salmon, J., Parrish, A.M., Stanley, R.M. & Okely, A.D. (2012) Physical activity during school recess a systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 43

(3), 320–328. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2012.05.019

Ridgers, N.D., Fairclough, S.J. & Stratton, G. (2010). Variables associated with children’s physical activity levels during recess: The A-CLASS project. International Journal of Behavioral

Nutrition and Physical Activity, 7 (74), 1-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-7-74

Ridgers, N.D., G. Stratton, & S.J. Fairclough. (2006). Physical activity levels of children during school playtime. Sports Med, 36 (4), 359–371.

Sallis, J. F., Prochaska, J. J., & Taylor, W. C. (2000). A review of correlates of physical activity of children and adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32, 963–975.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200005000-00014

Sallis, J.F., Conway, T.L., Prochaska, J.J., McKenzie, T.L., Marshall, S.J & Brown, M. (2001). The association of school environments with youth physical activity. American Journal of

Public Health, 91 (4), 618–620

Salmon, J. & Timperio, A. (2007). Prevalence, trends and environmental influences on child and youth physical activity. Med Sport Sci, 50, 183-199. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000101391

Santos, P., Guerra, S., Ribeiro, J. C., Duarte, J. A., & Mota, J. (2003). Age -and gender- related physical activity: A descriptive study in children using accelerometry. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 43 (1), 85-89.

Sarkin, J. A., McKenzie, T. L.,& Sallis, J. F. (1997). Gender differences in physical activity during fifthgrade physical education and recess period. Journal of Teaching Physical Education, 17, 99 – 106.

Skau, C., Tjornhoj-Thonsen, T., Schipperijn, J. & Troelsen, J. (2014) Barriers for Recess Physical Actvity: a gender specific qualitative focus group exploration. BMC Public Health, 14, 639.

Stanley, R.M., Boshoff, K. & Dollman, J. (2012). Voices in the playground: a qualitativeexploration of the barriers and facilitators of lunchtime play. Journal of Science and Medicine Sport,15 (1), 44–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2011.08.002

Strong, W.B., Malina, R.M., Blimkie, J.R., Daniels, S.R., Dishman, R.K., Gutin, B.& Hergenroeder, A.C. (2005). Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth. The Journal of Pediatrics, 146 (6), 732–737. 5.

Trost, S.G., Pate, R.R., Freedson, P.S., Sallis, J.F. & Taylor, W.C. (2000). Using objective physical activity measures with youth: How many days of monitoring are needed? Medicine

and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32, 426–431. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005768-

-00025

Trost SG, Pate RR, Sallis JF, Freedson PS, Taylor WC, Dowda M & Sirad J. (2002). Age and gender differences in objectively measured physical activity in youth. Medicine & Science

in Sports & Exercise, 34(2), 350-355 http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200202000-00025

Van Sluijs, E.M.F., McMinn, A.M. & Griffin, S.J, (2007). Effectiveness of interventions to

promote physical activity in children and adolescents: systematic review of controlled trials. British Medical Journal, 335, 703. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.39320.843947.BE

Veitch, J. (2007). Children’s perceptions of the use of public open spaces for active free-play. Children’s Geographies, 5(4), 409-422. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14733280701631874

Ward, D., Saunders, R. & Pate, R. (2007). Physical Activity Interventions in Children and Adolescents. United States: Human Kinetics.

Wareham, N.J., Van Siuijs, E.M.F. & Ekelund, U. (2005). Physical activity and obesity prevention: a review of the current evidence. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 64 (2), 229-247.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/PNS2005423

Wing, R.R. , Goldstein, M.G., Acton, K.J., Birch, L.L., Jakicic, J.M., Sallis, J.F.Jr, Smith-West, D., Jeffery, R.W. & Surwit, RS. (2001). Behavioral science research in diabetes: lifestyle

changes related to obesity, eating behavior, and physical activity. Diabetes Care, 24(1), 117–123. http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diacare.24.1.117

Publicado
2016-08-26
Cómo citar
Álvarez Bogantes, C. (2016). Entendiendo los factores que determinan la actividad física en el entorno escolar desde la perspectiva de los niños y niñas. MHSalud: Revista En Ciencias Del Movimiento Humano Y Salud, 13(1). https://doi.org/10.15359/mhs.13-1.2
Sección
Artículos Científicos (Arbitrada por pares, modalidad doble ciego)