0234-18-art01


Rev. Mar. Cost. ESSN 1659-407X. Vol. 10 (1), Enero-Junio 2018.
Recibido: 20 setiembre 2017 • Corregido: 12 enero 2018 • Aceptado: 22 enero 2018
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15359/revmar.10-1.1

Updated checklist of fishes at Cabo Pulmo reef, Gulf of California, Mexico

Listado actualizado de peces del arrecife de Cabo Pulmo, Golfo de California, México

Arturo Ayala Bocos1*, Francisco Javier Fernández Rivera Melo2 y Héctor Reyes Bonilla3

ABSTRACT

Cabo Pulmo National Park is among the most successful protected areas in the Eastern Pacific Ocean and harbors the most northern coral reef in that region. The objective of this paper was to update the latest published checklist of fishes at the park. Over 500 censuses were conducted between 2004 and 2017. In addition, an extensive bibliographic review was conducted of records published on the local ichthyofauna from 2001 to 2017. As a result, 69 new records of reef fish species were added to the Cabo Pulmo reef checklist, corresponding to 24 orders, 35 families and 51 genera. With these additions, the current updated checklist consists of 302 species, corresponding to 194 genera, 74 families, and 24 orders.

Keywords: Taxonomic arrangement, Richness, Biomass, Distribution, Range.


RESUMEN

El Parque Nacional Cabo Pulmo está entre las áreas protegidas más exitosas del Océano Pacífico Oriental, y alberga el arrecife coralino más septentrional de la región. El objetivo de este trabajo fue actualizar el último listado publicado de peces presentes en el parque. Se realizaron observaciones de especímenes en más de 500 inmersiones, los censos fueron llevados a cabo entre 2004 y 2017, adicionalmente, se obtuvieron registros de una extensa revisión bibliográfica acerca de la ictiofauna local publicados entre 2001 y 2017. Aquí se agregan 69 nuevos registros de especies de peces arrecifales presentes en el arrecife de Cabo Pulmo, estos corresponden a 24 órdenes, 35 familias y 51 géneros. Con estas adiciones, el listado actual consiste en 302 especies, correspondientes a 194 géneros, 74 familias y 24 órdenes.

Palabras clave: Arreglo taxonómico, riqueza, biomasa, distribución, rango.

INTRODUCTION

Cabo Pulmo National Park (23° 30’ N, 109° 30’ W), located in the southeastern coast of the Baja California Peninsula (Fig. 1), is the most northern reef with presence of coral patches in the eastern Pacific Ocean (Brusca & Thomson, 1975). Because of the involvement of local communities and the support of the local and federal government, academic institutions and nongovernmental organizations, the status of the park is excellent, to the point that Cabo Pulmo has been recognized as one of the healthiest marine areas in the world, and among the most relevant sites for conservation in the western coast of Mexico (Aburto-Oropeza et al. 2011; Reyes-Bonilla et al. 2014; Enochs & Glynn, 2017). For those reasons, in 1995 the Mexican reef was declared a national park: Parque Nacional Cabo Pulmo (www.conanp.gob.mx), and research in the area has improved noticeably in quality and quantity.


Fig. 1. Cabo Pulmo National Park and dive sites location where visual census were conducted

Fig. 1. Localización del Parque Nacional Cabo Pulmo y de los sitios principales donde se realizaron censos visuales de peces


Species inventories in the area are adequate, as listings for algae (Mateo-Cid et al. 2000), reef corals, gorgonians (Reyes-Bonilla et al. 1997), polychaetes, (Bastida-Zavala, 1995), arthropods (García-Madrigal & Bastida-Zavala, 1999), echinoderms (Cintra-Buenrostro et al. 1998) and fishes are available. In the latter case, Villarreal-Cavazos et al. (2000) published a thorough checklist prepared from visual observations and literature available to that date. Later, Alvarez-Filip et al. (2006), Reyes-Bonilla and Alvarez-Filip (2008), Saldívar-Lucio and Reyes-Bonilla (2011), Aburto-Oropeza et al. (2011), as well as the park administration (Anonymous, 2006) presented data and mentioned the occurrence of diverse fish species in the reef; however, all of them were already included in the 2000 compilation. Notwithstanding, thanks to continuous visits to the reef to monitor the reef fish community condition, a number of sightings of other species have been accumulating to the point that a new revision was needed. For that reason, the objective of this paper is to update the known checklist of fishes present at Cabo Pulmo National Park, based on confirmed observations of specimens in the area.


MATERIALS AND METHODS


The authors have visited the locality yearly since 2004 as part of a continuous monitoring program of the marine assemblages. Records of fishes were made by divers using three techniques: roving searches, belt transects of 20 x 5 m in size (100 m2 each), and stationary point counts in observation cylinders with a radius of 5 m (78.5 m2 total area). Over 500 censuses were conducted between 2004 and 2017 using transects and cylinders and approximately 200 used roving searches. In addition to the field information, references on the local fish fauna published from 2001 to 2017 were reviewed (21 papers in total); citations were searched using the following databases: Web of Science, Aquatic and Science Fisheries Abstracts, Scopus, and Google Scholar, and Robertson and Allen (2015).

All records not included in the previous checklist by Villarreal-Cavazos et al. (2000) were tabulated; their nomenclature, taxonomic validity and current classification into higher taxa were confirmed by consulting the Catalog of Fishes of the California Academy of Sciences (Eschmeyer et al. 2017) and the Shorefishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Online Information System (Robertson & Allen, 2015). A final listing was generated representing additions to the previous knowledge.


RESULTS

As indicated in Table 1, there are 69 new confirmed records of fish species present at Cabo Pulmo reef obtained from 2001 to 2017, corresponding to 24 orders, 35 families and 51 genera. These taxa do not share similar characteristics: they belong to many dissimilar taxonomic groups, are very different sizes, and reside in different locations, either in the reef, the surrounding sandy areas or in the water column. Another important result is the taxonomic change of 34 species previously reported by Villarreal-Cavazos et al. (2000) (Table 2). Table 2 also includes amendments as taxonomists have placed a number of species of the listing by Villarreal-Cavazos et al. (2000) in different families or orders after the year 2000. Finally, there was a major taxonomic change: the classes used by Villareal-Cavazos et al. (2000), such as Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes, are now respectively named Elasmobranchii and Actinopterygyii (Eschmeyer et al. 2017).

Table 1. Systematic list of fish species reported or observed at Cabo Pulmo reef, Gulf of California, Mexico. Reference number 1 corresponds to 69 new records obtained between 2001 and 2017 from museums/collections, databases, bibliographic references and field observations, and number 2 corresponds to species previously listed by Villarreal-Cavazos et al. (2000)

Cuadro 1. Lista sistemática de especies de peces reportadas u observadas en el arrecife Cabo Pulmo, Golfo de California, México. El número de referencia 1 corresponde a 69 nuevos registros obtenidos entre 2001 y 2017 de museos / colecciones, bases de datos, referencias bibliográficas y observaciones de campo, y el número 2 a especies listadas anteriormente por Villarreal-Cavazos et al. (2000)


Phylum Chordata

Reference

Class Elasmobranchii

Order Orectolobiformes

Family Rhincodontidae

Rhincodon typus Smith, 1828

2

Family Ginglymostomatidae

Ginglymostoma cirratum (Bonnaterre, 1788)

1

Order Lamniformes

Family Alopiidae

Alopias vulpinus Bonnaterre, 1788

2

Family Lamnidae

Isurus oxyrinchus Rafinesque, 1810

1

Order Carcharhiniformes

Family Carcharhinidae

Carcharhinus albimarginatus (Rüppell, 1837)

1

Carcharhinus falciformis (Müller and Henle, 1839)

1

Carcharhinus galapagensis (Snodgrass and Heller, 1905)

1

Carcharhinus limbatus (Valenciennes, 1839)

2

Carcharhinus leucas (Valenciennes, 1839)

1

Carcharhinus longimanus (Poey, 1861)

1

Galeocerdo cuvier (Péron and Lesueur, 1822)

1

Negaprion brevirostris (Poey, 1868)

2

Triaenodon obesus (Rüppell, 1837)

1

Family Sphyrnidae

Sphyrna lewini (Griffith and Smith, 1834)

1

Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus, 1758)

1

Family Triakidae

Mustelus lunulatus Jordan and Gilbert, 1882

1

Order Torpediniformes

Family Narcinidae

Diplobatis ommata (Jordan and Gilbert, 1890)

2

Narcine entemedor Jordan and Starks, 1895

2

Order Rhinopristiformes

Family Rhinobatidae

Pseudobatos productus (Ayres, 1854)

1

Family Trygonorrhinidae

Zapteryx exasperata (Jordan and Gilbert, 1880)

1

Order Myliobatiformes

Family Aetobatidae

Aetobatus laticeps (Gill, 1865)

2

Family Dasyatidae

Hypanus dipterurus (Jordan and Gilbert, 1880)

2

Hypanus longus (Garman, 1880)

2

Family Gymnuridae

Gymnura marmorata (Cooper, 1864)

1

Family Myliobatidae

Myliobatis longirostris Applegate and Fitch, 1964

2

Myliobatis californica Gill, 1865

1

Family Mobulidae

Mobula birostris (Walbaurn, 1792)

2

Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre, 1788).

1

Mobula munkiana Notarbartolo-di-Sciara, 1987

1

Mobula tarapacana (Philippi, 1892)

1

Mobula thurstoni (Lloyd, 1908)

1

Family Rhinopteridae

Rhinoptera steindachneri Evermann and Jenkins, 1892

1

Family Urotrygonidae

Urobatis concentricus Osburn and Nichols, 1916

2

Urobatis halleri (Cooper, 1863)

1

Urobatis maculatus Garman, 1913

2

Class Actinopteri

Order Elopiformes

Family Elopidae

Elops affinis Regan, 1909

1

Order Anguilliformes

Family Muraenidae

Anarchias galapagensis (Seale, 1940)

2

Echidna nebulosa (Ahl, 1789)

2

Echidna nocturna (Cope, 1972)

2

Enchelycore octaviana (Myers and Wade, 1941)

2

Gymnomuraena zebra (Shaw, 1797)

2

Gymnothorax castaneus (Jordan and Gilbert, 1882)

2

Gymnothorax dovii (Günther, 1870)

1

Gymnothorax panamensis (Steindachner,1 876)

2

Muraena clepsydra Gilbert, 1898

1

Muraena lentiginosa Jenyns, 1892

2

Uropterygius macrocephalus (Bleeker, 1865)

2

Uropterygius polystictus Myers and Wade, 1941

2

Family Ophichthidae

Callechelys eristigma McCosker and Rosenblatt, 1972

2

lchthyapus selachops (Jordan and Gilbert, 1882)

2

Myrichthys maculosus (Cuvier, 1817)

2

Myrichthys tigrinus Girard, 1859

2

Paraletharchus pacificus (Osburn and Nichols, 1916)

2

Phaenomonas pinnata Myers and Wade, 1941

2

Quassiremus nothochir (Gilbert, 1890)

2

Scytalichthys miurus (Jordan and Gilbert, 1882)

2

Family Congridae

Gorgasia punctata Meek and Hildebrand, 1923

2

Heteroconger digueti (Pellegrin, 1923)

2

Paraconger californiensis Kanazawa, 1961

1

Order Clupeiformes

Family Clupeidae

Harengula thrissina (Jordan and Gilbert, 1882)

2

Order Aulopiformes

Family Synodontidae

Synodus lacertinus Gilbert, 1890

2

Order Ophidiiformes

Family Ophidiidae

Ophidion iris Breder, 1926

2

Family Bythidae

Grammonus diagrammus (Heller and Snodgras, 1903)

2

Order Lophiiformes

Family Antennariidae

Antennarius sanguineus GiIl, 1863

2

Antennatus strigatus (GiIl, 1863)

2

Order Gobiesociformes

Family Gobiesocidae

Arcos erythrops (Jordan and Gilbert, 1882)

2

Gobiesox adustus Jordan and Gilbert, 1882

2

Gobiesox pinniger Gilbert, 1890

2

Tomicodon boehlkei Briggs, 1955

2

Tomicodon eos (Jordan and Gílbert, 1882)

2

Tomicodon myersi Briggs, 1955

2

Tomicodon zebra (Jordan and Gilbert, 1882)

2

Order Gonorynchiformes

Family Chanidae

Chanos chanos (Forsskål, 1775)

1

Order Beloniformes

Family Hemirampgidae

Hemiramphus saltator Gilbert and Starks, 1904

2

Family Belonidae

Ablennes hians (Valenciennes, 1846)

1

Platybelone argulus (Lesueur, 1821)

2

Strongylura exilis (Girard, 1854)

1

Tylosurus pacificus (Steindachner, 1876)

2

Family Exocoetidae

Exocoetus volitans Linnaeus, 1758

1

Order Atheriniformes

Family Atherinopsidae

Atherinella eriarcha (Jordan and Gilbert, 1882)

2

Order Holocentriformes

Family Holocentridae

Myripristis leiognathos Valenciennes, 1846

2

Sargocentron suborbitalis (Gill, 1863)

2

Order Bleniiformes

Family Blenniidae

Entomacrodus chiostictus (Jordan and Gilbert, 1883)

2

Hypsoblennius brevipinnis (Günther, 1861)

2

Hypsoblennius gentilis (Girard, 1854)

2

Ophioblennius steindaehneri Jordan and Evermann, 1898

2

Plagiotremus azaleus (Jordan and Bollman, 1890)

2

Family Chaenopsidae

Acanthemblemaria crockeri Beebe and Tee-Van, 1938

2

Acanthemblemaria macrospilus Brock, 1940

2

Chaenopsis alepidota (Gilbert, 1890)

2

Chaenopsis coheni Bohlke, 1957

2

Cirriemblemaria lucasana (Stephens, 1963)

2

Coralliozetus angelicus (Böhlke and Mead, 1957)

2

Coralliozetus micropes (Beebe and Tee-Van, 1938)

2

Coralliozetus rosenblatti Stephens, 1963

2

Ekemblemaria myersi Stephens, 1963

2

Emblemaria hypacanthus (Jenkins and Evermann, 1889)

2

Emblemaria walkeri Stephens, 1963

2

Protemblemaria bicirris (Hildebrand, 1946)

2

Stathmonotus sinuscalifornici (Chabanaud, 1942)

2

Family Labrisomidae

Labrisomus multiporosus Hubbs, 1953

2

Labrisomus striatus Hubbs, 1953

2

Labrisomus xanti GiIl, 1860

2

Malacoctenus ebisui Springer, 1959

1

Malacoctenus hubbsi Springer, 1959

2

Malacoctenus margaritae (Fowler, 1944)

2

Malacoctenus tetranemus (Cope, 1877)

2

Malacoctenus zacae Springer, 1959

2

Malacoctenus zonifer (Jordan and Gilbert, 1882)

1

Paraclinus beebei Hubbs, 1952

2

Paraclinus mexicanus (Gilbert, 1904)

2

Paraclinus sini Hubbs, 1952

2

Paraclinus lanygnathus Rosenblatt and Parr, 1969

2

Starksia spinipenis (Al-Uthman, 1960)

2

Xenomedea rhodopyga Rosenblatt and Taylor, 1971

2

Order Syngathiformes

Family Fistularidae

Fistularia commersonii Rüppell, 1835

2

Family Syngnathidae

Cosmocampus arctus (Jenkins and Evermann, 1889)

2

Doryrhamphus excisus Kaup, 1856

2

Hippocampus ingens Girard, 1858

2

Order Gobiiformes

Family Gobiidae

Aruma histrio (Jordan, 1884)

2

Barbulifer mexicanus Hoese and Larson, 1985

2

Barbulifer pantherinus (Pellegrin, 1901)

2

Bathygobius ramosus Ginsburg, 1947

2

Chriolepis zebra Ginsburg, 1938

2

Coryphopterus urospilus Ginsburg, 1938

2

Tigrigobius digueti (Pellegrin, 1901)

2

Tigrigobius puncticulatus (Ginsburg, 1938)

2

Gobiosoma chiquita (Jenkins and Evermann, 1889)

2

Gobiosoma nudum (Meek and Hildebrand, 1928)

2

Gobulus crescentalis (Gilbert, 1892)

2

Gymneleotris seminudus (Günther, 1864)

2

Lythrypnus dalli (Gilbert, 1890)

2

Lythrypnus pulchellus Ginsburg, 1939

2

Order Scorpaeniformes

Family Scorpaenidae

Scorpaena mystes Jordan and Starks, 1895

2

Scorpaena histrio Jenyns, 1840

1

Scorpaenodes xyris (Jordan and Gilbert, 1882)

2

Family Triglidae

Bellator loxias Jordan and Gilbert, 1896

2

Order Perciformes

Family Serranidae

Alphestes immaculatus Breder, 1936

2

Alphestes multiguttatus (Günther, 1867)

1

Dermatolepis dermatolepis (Boulenger, 1895)

2

Cephalopholis panamensis (Steindachner, 1876)

2

Epinephelus analogus Gill, 1864

2

Epinephelus quinquefasciatus (Bocourt, 1868)

2

Epinephelus labriformis (Jenyns, 1843)

2

Hemanthias peruanus (Steindachner, 1874)

2

Hyporthodus acanthistius (Gilbert, 1892)

2

Mycteroperca jordani (Jenkins and Evermann, 1889)

2

Mycteroperca prionura Rosenblatt and Zahuranec, 1967

2

Mycteroperca rosacea (Streets, 1877)

2

Mycteroperca xenarcha Jordan, 1888

2

Paranthias colonus Valenciennes, 1855

2

Paralabrax maculatofasciatus (Steindachner, 1868)

1

Pseudogramma thaumasium (Gilbert, 1900)

2

Rypticus bicolor Valenciennes, 1846

2

Rypticus nigripinnis Gill, 1861

2

Serranus psittacinus Valenciennes, 1855

2

Family Priacanthidae

Cookeolus japonicus (Cuvier, 1829)

1

Heteropriacanthus cruentatus (Lacepede, 1801)

1

Family Opistognathidae

Opistognathus fossoris Bussing and Lavenberg, 2003

1

Opistognathus punctatus Peters, 1869

1

Opistognathus rosenblatti Allen and Robertson, 1991

1

Opistognathus scops (Jenkins and evermann, 1899)

2

Family Apogonidae

Apogon atricaudus Jordan and McGregor, 1898

1

Apogon pacificus (Herre, 1935)

1

Apogon retrosella Gill, 1863

2

Famaily Malacanthiidae

Caulolatilus affinis Gill, 1865

2

Caulolatilus princeps (Jenyns, 1842)

2

Family Echeneidae

Remora remora (Linnaeus, 1758)

1

Family Carangidae

Alectis ciliaris (Bloch, 1788)

2

Caranx caballus Günther, ١٨٦٨

2

Caranx caninus Günther, ١٨٦٧

1

Caranx lugubris Poey, 1860

2

Caranx otrynter (Jordan and Gilbert, 1883)

2

Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy and Gaimard, 1825

1

Decapterus macarellus (Cuvier, 1833)

1

Gnathanodon speciosus Forsskål, 1775

2

Elagatis bipinnulata (Quoy and Gaimard, 1825)

1

Selar crumenophthalmus (Bloch, 1793)

2

Selene brevoorti (Gill, 1863)

2

Seriola lalandi Valenciennes, 1833

1

Seriola rivoliana Valenciennes, 1833

1

Trachinotus rhodopus Gill, 1863

2

Family Coryphaenidae

Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus, 1758

2

Family Lutjanidae

Hoplopagrus guentheri Gill, 1862

2

Lutjanus aratus (Günther, 1864)

1

Lutjanus argentiventris (Peters, 1869)

2

Lutjanus colorado Jordan and Gilbert, 1882

2

Lutjanus guttatus (Steindachner, 1869)

2

Lutjanus novemfasciatus Gill, 1862

2

Lutjanus peru (Nichols and Murphy, 1922)

1

Lutjanus inermis (Peters, 1869)

1

Lutjanus viridis (Valenciennes, 1845)

2

Family Haemulidae

Anisotremus davidsonii (Steindachner, 1875)

2

Anisotremus interruptus (Gill, 1862)

2

Anisotremus taeniatus Gill, 1861

2

Haemulon flaviguttatum Gill, 1863

2

Haemulon maculicauda (Gill, 1862)

1

Haemulon scudderi Gill, 1862

1

Haemulon sexfasciatum Gill, 1863

2

Haemulon steindachneri (Jordan and Gilbert, 1882)

1

Microlepidotus inornatus Gill, 1862

2

Family Sparidae

Calamus brachysomus (Lockington, 1880)

2

Family Scianidae

Pareques sp. a

2

Umbrina dorsalis Gill, 1862

2

Umbrina roncador Jordan and Gilbert, 1881

2

Umbrina xanti Gill, 1862

2

Family Mullidae

Mulloidichthys dentatus (Gill, 1863)

2

Mulloidichthys vanicolensis (Valenciennes, 1831)

1

Family Kyphosidae

Girella simplicidens Osburn and Nichols, 1916

2

Kyphosus azurea (Jenkins and Evermann, 1889)

2

Kyphosus vaigiensis (Quoy and Gaimard, 1825)

2

Kyphosus elegans (Peters, 1869)

2

Kyphosus ocyurus (Jordan and Gilbert, 1882)

1

Family Ephippidae

Chaetodipterus zonatus (Girard, 1858)

2

Family Chaetodontidae

Chaetodon humeralis Günther, 1860

2

Forcipiger flavissiums Jordan and McGregor 1898

2

Johnrandallia nigrirostris (Gill, 1862)

2

Prognathodes falcifer (Hubbs and Rechnitzer, 1958)

2

Family Pomacanthidae

Holacanthus clarionensis Gilbert, 1890

2

Holacanthus passer Valenciennes, 1846

2

Pomacanthus zonipectus (Gill 1862)

2

Family Pomacentridae

Abudefduf declivifrons (Gill, 1862)

2

Abudefduf troschelii (Gill, 1862)

2

Chromis alta Greenfield and Woods, 1980

2

Chromis atrilobata Gill, 1862

2

Chromis limbaughi Greenfield and Woods, 1980

2

Microspathodon bairdii (Gill, 1862)

2

Microspathodon dorsalis (Gill 1862)

2

Stegastes acapulcoensis (Flower, 1944)

2

Stegastes flavilatus (Gill, 1863)

2

Stegastes leucorus (Gilbert, 1892)

2

Stegastes rectifaenum (Gill, 1863)

2

Family Cirrhitidae

Cirrhitichthys oxycephalus (Bleeker, 1855)

2

Cirrhitus rivulatus (Valenciennes, 1855)

2

Oxycirrhites typus Bleeker 1857

2

Family Mugilidae

Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, 1758

2

Mugil curema Valenciennes, 1836

2

Family Labridae

Bodianus diplotaenia (Gill, 1863)

2

Decodon measma Gomon, 1974

2

Halichoeres chierchiae Caporiacco, 1974

2

Halichoeres dispilus (Günther, 1864)

2

Halichoeres melanotis (Gilbert, 1890)

2

Halichoeres nicholsi (Jordan and Gilbert, 1881)

2

Halichoeres notospilus (Günther, 1864)

2

Halichoeres semicinctus (Ayres, 1859)

2

Iniistius pavo (Valenciennes, 1840)

2

Novaculicthys taeniorus (Lacepede,1801)

2

Sagittalarva inornatus (Gilbert, 1890)

2

Thalassoma grammaticum Gilbert, 1890

2

Thalassoma lucasanum (Gill, 1863)

2

Xyrichtys mundiceps (Gill, 1862)

2

Family Scaridae

Nicholsina denticulata (Everman and Radcliffe, 1917)

2

Scarus compressus (Osburn and Nichols, 1916)

2

Scarus ghobban Forskål, 1775

2

Scarus perrico Jordan and Gilbert, 1881

2

Scarus rubroviolaceus Bleeker, 1814

2

Family Tripterygiidae

Axoclinus nigricaudus Allen and Robertson, 1991

1

Enneanectes carminalis (Jordan and Gilbert, 1882)

2

Enneanectes reticulatus Allen and Robertson, 1991

2

Crocodilichthys gracilis Allen and Robertson, 1991

1

Family Dactyloscopidae

Dactylagnus mundus Gill, 1863

2

Dactyloscopus byersi Dawson, 1969

2

Dactyloscopus lunaticus Gilbert, 1890

2

Dactyloscopus pectoralis Gill, 1861

2

Gillelus arencola Gilbert, 1890

2

Gillelus ornatus Gilbert, 1896

2

Gillelus semicinictus Gilbert, 1890

2

Heteristius cinctus (Osburn and Nichols, 1916)

2

Myxodagnus opercularis Gill, 1861

2

Family Zanclidae

Zanclus cornutus (Linnaeus, 1758)

2

Family Acanthuridae

Acanthurus nigricans (Linnaeus, 1758)

2

Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus, 1758)

2

Acanthurus xanthopterus Valenciennes, 1835

2

Prionurus laticlavius (Valenciennes, 1846)

1

Prionurus punctatus Gill, 1862

2

Family Scombridae

Acanthocybium solandri (Cuvier, 1832)

1

Euthynnus lineatus Kishinouye, 1920

2

Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus, 1758)

2

Sarda chilensis (Cuvier, 1832)

1

Scomber japonicus Houttuyn, 1782

1

Scomberomorus sierra Jordan and Starks, 1895

1

Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre, 1788)

2

Family Istiophoridae

Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw, 1792)

1

Istiompax indica (Cuvier, 1832)

1

Makaira nigricans Lacepéde, 1802

1

Order Tetraodontiformes

Family Balistidae

Balistes polylepis Steindachner, 1876

2

Melichthys niger (Bloch, 1786)

2

Pseudobalistes naufragium (Jordan and Starks, 1895)

2

Sufflamen verres (Gilbert and Starks, 1904)

2

Family Monacanthidae

Aluterus scriptus (Osbeck, 1765)

2

Cantherhines dumerilii (Hollard, 1854)

2

Family Ostraciidae

Ostracion meleagris Shaw, 1796

2

Family Tetraodontidae

Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus, 1758)

2

Arothron meleagris (Bloch and Schneider, 1801)

2

Canthigaster punctatissima (Günther, 1870)

2

Sphoeroides annulatus (Jenyns, 1842)

2

Sphoeroides lobatus (Steindachner, 1870)

2

Family Diodontidae

Chilomycterus reticulatus (Linnaeus, 1758)

1

Diodon holocanthus Linnaeus, 1758

2

Diodon hystrix Linnaeus, 1758

2

Order Pleuronectiformes

Family Bothidae

Bothus mancus (Broussonet, 1782)

1

Family Paralichthydae

Citharichthys gordae Beebe and Tee-Van, 1938

2

 

 

 

Paralichthys woolmani Jordan and Williams, 1897

2


Table 2. Taxonomic modifications from the list by Villarreal-Cavazos et al. (2000). Species presented in systematic order

Cuadro 2. Modificaciones taxonómicas de la lista Villarreal-Cavazos y colaboradores (2000). Especies presentadas en orden sistemático

Name in original report

Currently accepted name

Observations

Class Chondrichthyes

Class Elasmobranchii

Order Rajiformes

Both species currently in Order Torpediniformes

Family Narcinidae

Diplobatis ommata (Jordan and Gilbert, 1890)

Narcine entemedor Jordan and Starks, 1895

Family Dasyatidae

Dasyatis brevis (Garman, 1880)

Hypanus dipterurus (Jordan and Gilbert, 1880)

Dasyatis longus (Garman, 1880)

Hypanus longa (Garman, 1880)

Family Myliobatidae

Familia Aetobatidae

Three Families Urolophidae, Mobulidae and Myliobatidae currently in Order Myliobatiformes

Aetobatus narinari (Euphrasen, 1790)

Aetobatus laticeps (Gill, 1865)

This species currently in Order Myliobatiformes

Family Mobulidae

Manta birostris (Walbaurn, 1792)

Mobula birostris (Walbaurn, 1792)

Family Urolophidae

Both species currently placed in Family Urotrygonidae

Urobatis concentricus Osburn and Nichols, 1916

Urobatis maculatus Garman, 1913

Class Osteichthyes

Class Actinopterygyii

Family Muraenidae

Uropterygius tigrinus Girard, 1859

Myrichthys tigrinus Girard, 1859

Family Ophichthidae

Myrichthys maculosus (Cuvier, 1816)

Myrichthys tigrinus Girard, 1859

Family Bythitidae

Oligopus diagrammus (Heller and Snodgrass, 1903)

Grammonus diagrammus (Heller and Snodgrass, 1903)

Family Atherinidae

Atherinella eriarcha (Jordan and Gilbert, 1882)

Currently placed in Family Atherinopsidae

Eurystole eriarcha (Jordan and Nichols, 1916)

Family Scorpaenidae

Scorpaena mystes Jordan and Starks, 1895

 

Scorpaena plumieri mystes (Jordan and Starks, 1895)

Family Serranidae

Epinephelus acanthistius (Gilbert, 1892)

Hyporthodus acanthistius (Gilbert, 1892)

Epinephelus panamensis (Steindachner, 1876)

Cephalopholis panamensis (Steindachner, 1877)

Epinephelus itajara (Lichstenstein, 1822)

Epinephelus quiquefasciatus (Bocourt, 1868)

Pseudogramma thaumasium (Gilbert, 1900)

Originally placed in Family Grammistidae

Rypticus bicolor Valenciennes, 1846

Originally placed in Family Grammistidae

Rypticus nigripinnis Gill, 1861

Originally placed in Family Grammistidae

Family Kyphosidae

 

 

Kyphosus analogus Gill, 1862

Kyphosus vaigiensis (Quoy and Gaimard, 1825)

Sectator ocyurus (Jordan and Gilbert, 1882)

Kyphosus ocyurus (Jordan and Gilbert, 1882)

Family Branchiostegidae

 

Currently placed in Family Malacanthidae

Caulolatilus affinis Gill, 1865

Caulolatilus princeps (Jenyns, 1840)

Family Chaetodontidae

 

Chaetodon falcifer Hubbs and Rechnitzer, 1958

Prognathodes falcifer (Hubbs and Rechnitzer, 1958)

Family Labridae

 

 

Xyrichthys pavo (Valenciennes, 1840)

Iniistius pavo (Valenciennes, 1840)

Pseudojulis inornatus Gilbert, 1890

Sagittalarva inornatus (Gilbert, 1890)

Hemipteronotus mundiceps (Gill, 1863)

Xyrichtys mundiceps (Gill, 1862)

Family Tripterygiidae

 

Axoclinus carminalis (Jordan and Gilbert, 1882)

Enneanectes carminalis (Jordan and Gilbert, 1882)

Family Chaenopsidae

 

 

Protemblemaria lucasana Stephens, 1963

Cirriemblemaria lucasana (Stephens, 1963)

Family Dactyloscopidae

 

Dactyloscopus mundus Gill, 1862

Dactylagnus mundus Gill, 1863

Family Chaenopsidae

 

 

Coralliozetus angelica (Böhlke and Mead, 1957)

Coralliozetus angelicus (Böhlke and Mead, 1957)

Family Zanclidae

 

 

Zanclus canescens (Linnaeus, 1758)

Zanclus cornutus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Family Bothidae

 

Both species currently placed in Family Paralichthydae

Citharichthys gordae Beebe and Tee-Van, 1938

Paralichthys woolmani Jordan and Williams, 1897


DISCUSSION

A total of 69 confirmed species and 4 orders (Elopiformes, Gonorynchiformes, Myliobatiformes and Torpediniformes) was added to the previous list of 236 species seen or found at the reef, corresponding to 18 orders, 60 families and 155 genera (Villarreal-Cavazos et al. 2000). Consequently, the current checklist consists of 302 species, corresponding to 194 genera, 74 families and 24 orders. This amount represents approximately 30% of the 840 to 911 fishes reported at the Gulf of California (Hastings et al. 2011; Robertson & Allen, 2015), and is comparable with the amount found in other areas with coral reef communities in western Mexico and for which detailed checklists exist, such as Concepción Bay 26°N with 146 species (Rodríguez-Romero et al. 2005), La Paz 24°N: 522 species (Balart et al. 1995), Banderas Bay 20°N: 205 species (Moncayo-Estrada et al. 2006), Navidad Bay 19°N: 245 species (Aguilar-Palomino et al. 2001), Acapulco 16°N: 302 species (Rojas-Herrera et al. 2011), and Huatulco 15°N:112 species (López-Pérez et al. 2010). This observation is remarkable considering the small size of Cabo Pulmo reef (less than 1000 ha) (Anonymous, 2006) and gives more evidence of the recognized high species diversity of the site (Aburto-Oropeza et al. 2011).

It is interesting to note that 22 (31%) of the new records pertain to sharks and rays, of which only 10 species had previously been reported at Cabo Pulmo (Villarreal-Cavazos et al. 2000; Anonymous 2006; Reyes-Bonilla et al. 2016). This means that the number of these taxa has more than doubled at the reef. Although there is no quantitative data to document it, the authors’ observations point out that, in fact, the number of elasmobranch species commonly seen at the reefs and surroundings has increased noticeably since 2005, to the point that shark observation is now a local tourist attraction, and large schools of eagle rays and other species are frequently seen hovering below the surface. It can be assumed that the good status of the system has favored this situation as fish biomass in the area has increased over 200% between the beginning and the end of the last decade, a condition that favors the presence of large predators (Aburto-Oropeza et al. 2011; Reyes-Bonilla et al. 2016; Enochs & Glynn 2017).

In addition to the 302 species documented in Cabo Pulmo reef, the maps by Robertson and Allen (2015) indicate the possible presence of another 243 species, considering the general geographic distribution range of the species that reside in the Gulf of California. As these diagrams represent interpolations of the northernmost and southernmost reported ranges of the species, they should be taken carefully in order to avoid overestimations of the total number of fish species at any given location (in this case, Cabo Pulmo). Nevertheless, the possibility of finding new records in the locality is open.

In conclusion, this paper adds 68 species to the original checklist of 236 fish taxa that had been reported or collected at Cabo Pulmo reef, generating a new total of 302 species. Such richness is high enough to be comparable to the one reported in other reefs of the western coast of Mexico (even though Cabo Pulmo reef is relatively small), and demonstrate the importance of this area for fish biodiversity in the Gulf of California.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to thank Vladimir Pérez, María Martínez, Nuria Torrejón, Georgina Ramírez, Alexandra Álvarez del Castillo, Jenny Carolina (UABCS), Carlos Godínez (CONANP), Bryan Castro, Mario Castro, David Castro, Luis Castro (Cabo Pulmo Dive Center) for their support and participation in the underwater monitoring of this project and the search for online databases. Our final thanks go to the three anonymous reviewers for their highly constructive criticisms to improve the contents and structure of this paper.


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1 Ecosistemas y Conservación: Proazul Terrestre A. C. Héroes de Independencia 2440, CP 23000, La Paz, B. C. S., México.

2 Comunidad y Biodiversidad A. C. Isla del Peruano 215, Lomas de Miramar, CP 85448, Guaymas, Sonora, México.

3 Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur. Departamento de Ciencias Marinas y Costeras. Carretera al sur km 5.5., Col. El Mezquitito. CP 23080. La Paz, B. C. S., México. artbocos@gmail.com*



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