MHSalud: Revista en Ciencias del Movimiento Humano y Salud <p style="text-align: left;"><strong>MHSalud Journal:&nbsp;Journal of Human Movement Sciences and Health</strong> is&nbsp;<span class="tlid-translation translation">bi-annual scientific, bilingual and multidisciplinary publication.</span>&nbsp;<span class="tlid-translation translation">Its objective is to disseminate quality scientific knowledge generated in the field of Human Movement Sciences and Health through a digital, scientific, international and multidisciplinary journal. The areas in which manuscripts will be received are all those related to the Human Movement and Health sciences such as: Physical Education, Physical Health Promotion, Exercise Physiology, Motor Behavior, Sports Performance, Human Movement Medicine, Therapy Physics, Nutrition and human movement, Psychology and human movement, Physical Activity, among others. It is oriented at professionals in the Human Movement and Health Sciences as well as the general public. It is indexed in: SciElo, Redalyc, LATINDEX, DOAJ, OAI, Livre, DIALNET, DRJI and in the Emerging Source Citation Index (ESCI). MHSalud Journal does not charge for admission, processing or publication of articles.</span></p> en-US <p><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title=""><strong>Self-archiving policy</strong>: The journal allows the self-archiving of the articles in their peer-reviewed version, edited and approved by the Editorial Board of the Journal to be available in Open Access through the Internet.</span> <span class="" title="">More information in the following link: <a title="sherpa" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></span></span></p> <p><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><strong><span class="" title="">General conditions</span></strong><br><span class="" title="">The journal is hosted in open access repositories such as the Institutional Repository of the Universidad Nacional, the Kimuk Repository of Costa Rica and La Referencia.</span><br><span class="" title="">The editorial source must be recognized.</span></span></p> <p><span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title=""><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Licencia Creative Commons"></a></span></span></p> <p>MHSalud: Journal in Human Movement Sciences and Health by the Universidad Nacional is cover under a <a href="">Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 3.0 Costa Rica</a> license.</p> (María Amalia Penabad-Camacho) (UNAWEB Department) Fri, 16 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Six-Minute Walk Test. Is It Possible to Predict Oxygen Consumption in People With Pathologies? A Bibliographic Review <p>The six-minute walk test (SMWT) consists of walking as far as possible and is characterized by being an easy test to perform. This paper examines the relationship between the three variables of distance traveled, cardiac and pulmonary pathologies, and the oxygen consumption of a criterion test on treadmill and/or cycle ergometer, and the prediction equations of VO<sub>2</sub> in the SMWT of Maldonado and Ingle (2006), Vanhelst (2013) and Costa (2017) for people with pathologies. The paper is a bibliographic review that used the Scopus and WOS databases containing articles in English, Spanish and Portuguese, published between 2000 and 2017. Distance is the variable that was most measured, and it was most associated with VO<sub>2</sub>; correlations with values from 0.01 to 0.8 were found. The pathologies most related to VO<sub>2</sub> max were pulmonary hypertension, obstructive pulmonary disease, and ventricular heart failure and stroke; and the cycle ergometer was the most commonly used in the VO<sub>2</sub> max criterion tests. Only one equation was created for children who were obese; it included distance and BMI (Vanhelst). Another equation was generated for adults with heart disease that also included sex (Costa). Besides, one equation was for patients with ventricular systolic dysfunction that also incorporated age, volume expiratory and hemoglobin (Ingle); another one was created for adults with heart failure, and this formula considered the distance (Maldonado). It is suggested to use the most appropriate equation and create predictive models for people with different characteristics.</p> Jaime Vásquez-Gómez, Marcelo Castillo-Retamal, Ricardo Souza de Carvalho, Cesar Faundez-Casanova, Moacyr De Paula Portes Junior ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 16 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +0000 OLDER ADULTS’ PERCEPTION OF THE OF THE FACTORS THAT DETERMINE PARTICIPATION TO THE PRE-SPORT VOLIOCHO IN SANTO DOMINGO, HEREDIA, COSTA RICA <p>The objective of this research was to know the factors that determine the participation of the old people in the pre-sport <em>voliocho</em> at the canton of Santo Domingo, Heredia, Costa Rica. This is a grounded theory-based study with a qualitative approach. Twenty older adults participated, aged between 65 and 81 years, practicing pre-sport games for seven years or more. A life story methodology, a semi-structured interview, and the passive observation were used to collect the data. The analysis was carried out by means of the codification in categories established by the Social Cognitive Theory of Bandura (1986). The results show that the main factors of adherence are perceived self-efficacy, expected benefits, self-control, motor skills, social environment relationships, and physical environment. In conclusion, we can appreciate the importance of personal, behavioral, and environmental factors in order to initiate and maintain any physical-sport program in older adults over time.<span id="transmark" style="display: none; width: 0px; height: 0px;"></span></p> María Fernanda Herrera Monge, Jorge Salas Cabrera, Héctor Fonseca Schmidth, Suyen Alonso Ubieta, Carlos Álvarez Bogantes ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 16 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +0000 LEARNING DELIVERY AND COMMITMENT, PERCEIVED MOTOR COMPETENCE, AND ANXIETY WHEN MAKING MISTAKES OR UNDER STRESS: MOTIVATING FACTORS IN ADOLESCENTS FOR ACHIEVEMENT DURING PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES <p>Objective: to determine the factors associated to motivation in students for achievement of III cycle (seventh, eighth, and ninth grades) of the General Basic Education during Physical Education classes. Methodology: The AMPET questionnaire (Achievement Motivation in Physical Education Test) was applied to a total of 396 students (178 women and 218 men) of high school from five public educational centers, located in the Central Canton of the Province of Heredia, Costa Rica. A descriptive analysis was made with averages and standard deviations, 2x3 factorial ANOVA for independent groups. Results: Differences (p = .000) were observed in the commitment factor and learning delivery according to the academic level. When doing a post-hoc Tukey, it was found that the lower the academic level, the greater the commitment and learning delivery; that is to say, the seventh grade students reflect a higher score in the factor of commitment and learning delivery (4.03 ± .06) in comparison with eighth level (3.60 ± .05) and ninth level students (3.62 ± .06). With respect to the perceived motor competence factor, differences were obtained (p = .000) according to sex. The above reflects that men have a greater perceived motor competence (3.03 ± .06), compared to women (2.62 ± .07). Regarding the anxiety factor when making mistakes or under stress situations, statistically significant differences were found (p = .000); according to sex, women obtained a higher score in anxiety when making mistakes or under stress situations 2.51 ± .06), compared to men (2.16 ± .05). Conclusion: The research revealed that women respond differently than men to the factors associated with achievement motivation and it should be noted that physical education is a source of stress for them, an important fact to analyze to know its cause, and whether it is due to the existence of a gap in motor competence that has consequences on behavior, as well as to compare whether this behavior is repeated in schools in different regions of the country.</p> <p><br><span id="transmark" style="display: none; width: 0px; height: 0px;"></span></p> Magally Márquez-Barquero, Christian Azofeifa-Mora ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 16 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +0000 ANALYSIS OF OVERWEIGHT, OBESITY, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVELS, AND SELF-ESTEEM IN CHILDREN FROM LEÓN, NICARAGUA <p>The objective of this investigation was to analyze the prevalence of overweight or obesity, the levels of physical activity and self-esteem in a Nicaragua school region. 731 students from 10 schools in the department of Leon Nicaragua were evaluated: 260 were in fourth grade, 226 in fifth grades and 245 in sixth grades, between 9 and 13 years old. Height and weight evaluation to calculate BMI, the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C), and Lawrence Self-Esteem Questionnaire (LAWSEQ) were applied. According to the results, 25% of students have a prevalence of overweight and obesity and 4% in low weight. In physical activity, 77% perceive themselves to be moderately active. Regarding self-esteem, it was found that 51% had low self-esteem and only 4% had a high level of self-esteem. This directs the course for the development of interventions that contemplate the school environment, in order to promote strategies that activate lifelong childhood to a healthier lifestyle.</p> Ricardo Reyes Ortiz, Eddy Otero Zamora, Raúl Pastrán Mairena, María Fernanda Herrera Monge, Carlos Álvarez Bogantes ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 16 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +0000 ATTITUDES TOWARDS DOPPING AND PERFECTIONISM IN SOCCER, INDOOR SOCCER, AND BASKETBALL PROFESSIONAL ATHLETES IN COSTA RICA <p>The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the attitude toward doping and its relationship with perfectionism in professional athletes from three sports in Costa Rica. Through questionnaires, the attitude towards doping and its relationship with perfectionism was evaluated in 217 professional athletes over 18 years of age, 121 were men and 96 women. They were enrolled in the top-elite championship of Costa Rica during the 2013 and 2014 seasons, in the disciplines of soccer, indoor soccer, and basketball. For the attitude towards doping an average of 34.33 ± 11.40 was obtained, while for perfectionism the average was 83.08 ± 12.27. Men presented a significantly more positive (<em>p</em>= 0.001) attitude toward doping and are more perfectionist (<em>p</em>= 0.028) in their sports performance than women. There is a significant positive correlation (<em>p</em>= 0.000) between attitude towards doping and perfectionism in sports. In general, the participants in this study have a negative attitude toward doping. Both in the attitude toward doping and in perfectionism, no differences were found between sports or in the sport-sex interaction. The significant relationship found between perfectionism and the attitude towards doping suggests that an athlete with these perfectionist characteristics might be more prone to incur such practices.</p> <p><br><span id="transmark" style="display: none; width: 0px; height: 0px;"></span></p> Karen Salas-Ramírez, Daniel Rojas-Valverde ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 16 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +0000